Nolo’s Free Dictionary Of Law Terms and Legal Definitions

Voluntary transfer A transfer of a debtor’s property with the debtor’s consent. Uphold The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand. Unliquidated claim A claim for which a specific value has not been determined. Undersecured claim A debt secured by property that is worth less than the amount of the debt. Transfer Any mode or means by which a debtor disposes of or parts with his/her property. Subpoena A command, issued under a court’s authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony.

Front Matter

Judge An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices.

The police want tougher laws for dealing with drug traffickers. We’re campaigning for a repeal of the abortion laws. The law forbids the sale of cigarettes to people under the age of 16. These people were known to be very quick to go to law. It was a detailed study of international human rights law. See, e.g., Glossary of legal terms at the New York Courts website. Distinctions are made among various types of law dictionaries.

Read more about law terminologies here. A separate court of “equity” could order someone to do something or to cease to do something (e.g., injunction). In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in “law” cases but not in “equity” cases. Discharge A release of a debtor from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Notable exceptions to dischargeability are taxes and student loans. The discharge also prohibits creditors from communicating with the debtor regarding the debt, including through telephone calls, letters, and personal contact.

Subject(s) in Oxford Reference

Indictment The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies. Disposable income Income not reasonably necessary for the maintenance or support of the debtor or dependents. If the debtor operates a business, disposable income is defined as those amounts over and above what is necessary for the payment of ordinary operating expenses. Defendant In a civil case, the person or organization against whom the plaintiff brings suit; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.

Chapter 7 trustee A person appointed in a Chapter 7 case to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the creditors. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules, liquidating the property of the estate, and making distributions to creditors.

The law of the land the established law of a country. Be a law unto oneself to be inclined not to obey rules or follow the usual customs and conventions. The state or practice of settling in vacant or abandoned property, either for shelter or in an attempt to establish ownership. An expert on the codification and revision of Roman laws ordered by the 6th-century Byzantine emperor Justinian. An act or action having the character of a crime. A person who puts a particular interpretation on provisions of the U.S. Constitution, especially those provisions dealing with the rights of individuals and states.

Bankruptcy judge A judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases. For the Tax Court, though, this was all about who paid the premiums for the insurance coverage. His employer paid them, and the premium payments were not deducted from his pay. In essence, then, this was extra money, not something he had paid for. He even tried arguing that the pay was really in the nature of physical injury or sickness payments, so could be excluded as that type of damages. However, what if you paid for your disability insurance yourself, with after-tax dollars?